Stoffenmanager®

Working safely with dangerous substances

What is Stoffenmanager®?

1. Background

Stoffenmanager® is available since October 2003 as a free web application. The instrument is developed by TNO, Arbo Unie and BECO (EY), and was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. Besides the free Stoffenmanager® Basic licence, paid licences are also offered: Stoffenmanager® Product+, Risk+ and Premium. From May 2014 onward all activities related to further development, training, helpdesk, communication and sales promotion are carried out by Cosanta B.V. The name Stoffenmanager® has been registered.

There are more than 33,000 Stoffenmanager® users and, each week, Stoffenmanager® welcomes 50 new users.

Stoffenmanager® helps organisations to comply with the regulatory and broader ethical and sustainability requirements. Stoffenmanager® is an online system to identify the chemical hazards, control the exposure at workplaces and communicate in an understandable, transparent manner to managers, employees and external stakeholders.

Stoffenmanager® is internationally accepted and included in the EU chemical legislation (REACH R.14 Guidance) and EU-OSHA OSH WIKI.

2. Relevant legislation

2.1 General

Stoffenmanager® is in line with the current EU legislation on exposure to chemical agents and chemical safety. Although Stoffenmanager® can be applied globally, the developers only guarantee that any change in EU legislation is taken into account in the continuous development of the instrument. Outside of the European Union, one has to check whether local legislation accepts the use of models to estimate exposure.

The legislation directly applicable to Stoffenmanager® is:

  • Directive 98/24/EC - risks related to chemical agents at work of 7 April 1998 on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work (fourteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) and its later amendments
  • Directive 2004/37/EC - carcinogens or mutagens at work
    of 29 April 2004 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work (Sixth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) Directive 89/391/EEC) and its later amendments
  • Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 - REACH
    of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and establishing a European Chemicals Agency and its later amendments. Occupational exposure assessment (Chapter R.14) (23/08/2016) of the REACH technical Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment.
  • Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 - classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (Text with EEA relevance). Including its later amendments.
  • Directive 1999/92/EC - minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres (15th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)
  • PGS 15 2016 Version 1.0 (September 2016). Storage of packaged hazardous substances

Additional legislation:

  • Directive 2009/161/EU - indicative occupational exposure limit values
    of 17 December 2009 establishing a third list of indicative occupational exposure limit values in implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC and amending Commission Directive 2000/39/EC (Text with EEA relevance)
  • Directive 2006/15/EC - indicative occupational exposure limit values
    of 7 February 2006 establishing a second list of indicative occupational exposure limit values in implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC and amending Directives 91/322/EEC and 2000/39/EC
  • Directive 91/322/EEC - indicative limit values
    of 29 May 1991 on establishing indicative limit values by implementing Council Directive 80/1107/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work.
  • Directive 2000/39/EC - indicative occupational exposure limit values
    of 8 June 2000 establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values in implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work.
  • Directive 2017/164/EU - indicative occupational exposure limit values of 31 January 2017 establishing a fourth list of indicative occupational exposure limit values pursuant to Council Directive 98/24/EC, and amending Commission Directives 91/322/EEC, 2000/39/EC and 2009/161/EU (Text with EEA relevance)
  • Further lists on indicative occupational exposure limit values

2.2 Country specific

  • Credit to translators
  • Relevant legislation
  • Authorities
  • Literature
  • Others

3. Tool description

3.1 Difference in versions: both functionalities and algorithms

Stoffenmanager® (www.stoffenmanager.com) is a continuous development platform. Not only functionalities can and will be improved and extended, but also the underlying algorithms. Below you can find the history starting from the presentation of the demo version on 27 October 2003.

Reading guide:

  • in the overview main changes per version are given.
  • not all minor version numbers are mentioned. From version 5.5 onwards, a full list of major and minor version patch-notes can be viewed.
  • a version number in bold means that the algorithms have been changed and / or that new algorithms have been added.

Version Date Functionalities and algorithms References

0

Demo version

October 2003

Register dangerous products

Inhalation risk assessment:

- control banding

- control measures

- action plan

Workplace instruction cards

Storage dangerous products:

- according to Dutch CPR 15-1 guideline

Le Feber M et al (2003) Model om inhalatoire blootstelling te schatten in het MKB

1.0

October 2004

Register dangerous products

Inhalation risk assessment:

- control banding

- control measures

- action plan

Workplace instruction cards

Storage dangerous products:

- according to Dutch CPR 15-1 guideline

Noy et al (2004) Ontwikkeling van een software instrument voor het opzetten van gevaarlijke stoffenbeleid door MKB bedrijven - Opleveringsrapportage

1.5

May 2005

Layout and hosting at www.arbo.nl.

Bureau arboplatform Nederland (2005)

Tussenrapportage: ‘Beheer webapplicatie Stoffenmanager’ Periode december 2004 t/m juni 2005 (Dutch, not publicly available)

2.0

October 2005

Inhalation risk assessment:

- split of risk assessment and action plan

- calculation (combined) effect of control measures

Registration of CMR substances

Standard exchange format substance- and product data

Van der Schaaf et al (2005) Verslag van de ontwikkeling van Stoffenmanager Versie 2.0: januari-oktober 2005. TNO rapport (Dutch, not publicly available)

2.5

August 2007

Dermal risk assessment:

- control banding

- control measures

- action plan

Explosion safety

- assessment according to ATEX-137 legislation

PIMEX (Picture Mixed Exposure) movies which can be used to give insight into the impact of control measures.

TNO / Arbo Unie / BECO groep (2006) Functioneel ontwerp Huidmodule (Dutch, not publicly available)

Le Feber M et al (2006) Beschrijving van de integratie van Stoffenmanager met ROD Toolkit (generieke versie). TNO rapport (Dutch, not publicly available)

Goede H et al (2003) Classification of dermal exposure modifiers and assignment of values for a risk assessment toolkit. Ann Occup Hyg; 47(8):609-18.

BECO groep / Arbo Unie (2007) Functionele omschrijving ATEX module (Dutch, not publicly available)

3.0

October 2007

Multilanguage:

- Dutch and English

Inhalation risk assessment:

- quantitative exposure assessment for solids

Storage dangerous products:

- according to Dutch PGS 15: 2005 guideline

Tielemans E et al (2007) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitatitve exposure model. TNO/ Arbo Unie report.

Tielemans E et al (2008) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitative algorithm. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 52(6) 443.

3.5

May 2008

Inhalation risk assessment:

- quantitative exposure assessment for liquids

- calculation job daily average

Tielemans E et al (2007) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitatitve exposure model. TNO/ Arbo Unie report.

Tielemans E et al (2008) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitative algorithm. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 52(6) 443.

Marquart H et al (2008) 'Stoffenmanager', a web-based control banding tool using an exposure process model. Ann. Occup. Hyg.; 52 (6), 429.

4.0

December 2009

Inhalation risk assessment, quantitative exposure assessment:

- adaptation and split of algorithms

- separate algorithms for high and low volatile liquids

- separate algorithms for solids on abrasive and non-abrasive activities

Fransman W et al (2009) Modifications to the Stoffenmanager 4.0 inhalation model. TNO report.

Schinkel J et al (2010) Cross-validation and refinement of the Stoffenmanager as a first tier exposure assessment tool for REACH.

4.5

June 2011

Dermal and inhalation risk assessment, control banding:

- implementation CLP/EU-GHS (H- and P-statements)

- CLP convertor to convert R-phrases into H-statements

Inhalation risk assessment, quantitative exposure assessment:

- split immission parameter nimm in nimm x npbm

- algorithm respirable dust for abrasive activities on stone

Inhalation risk assessment, Nano module:

- control banding

- control measures

- action plan

- factsheets

Multilanguage:

- Finnish language added

BECO groep / TNO / Arbo Unie (2010) Functioneel ontwerp CLP/EU-GHS (Dutch, not publicly available)

Verbist KJM, Marquart H, Heussen HG, Schinkel J, West J, Fransman W, Van Niftrik MF, Tielemans E. (2011): Stoffenmanager: een web-based control banding tool.

TNO / Arbo Unie / BECO groep (2011). Functioneel ontwerp Stoffenmanager® respirabel verspanend steen model 4.5: algoritme en blootstelling (Dutch, not publicly available)

Duuren-Stuurman B et al (2012) Stoffenmanager Nano version 1.0: a web-based tool for risk prioritization of airborne manufactured nano objects. Ann Occup Hyg: 56(5): 525-41.

5.0

March 2013

Stoffenmanager® Premium:

- location management

- multi-user

- XML import substance- and product data

- archiving

 

5.5

May 2014

Multilanguage:

- German language added

More information? See patch-notes

patch-notes

5.6.0

October 2014

Launch new home page:

- new Stoffenmanager® design

More information? See patch-notes

patch-notes

5.6.8

February 2015

Explosion safety:

- adaptation algorithms according to changes in ATEX-137 legislation

Storage dangerous products:

- adaptation algorithms according to changes in Dutch PGS 15 guideline

More information? See patch-notes

patch-notes

6.0

May 2015

New functionalities for chemical management:

- dashboard

- new filter and Excel export

- version management

- expiration date risk assessments

patch-notes

6.3.3

March 2016

Multilanguage:

- Swedish language added

More information? See patch-notes

patch-notes

6.4.1

May 2016

Multilanguage:

- Polish language added

More information? See patch-notes

patch-notes

6.5

October 2016

Inhalation risk assessment, quantitative exposure assessment:

- determining the concentration per component in a powder mixture composed of one or more components is now possible.

More information? See patch-notes

ISAB meeting September 2016

Cosanta (2016) Functioneel ontwerp Stoffenmanager® 6.5 (Dutch, not publicly available)

patch-notes

7.0

May 2017

Dermal and inhalation risk assessment, control banding:

- new hazard banding classes in line with GHS

- replaces hazard banding classes according to COSHH Essentials in Stoffenmanager® versions 1.0 and later

More information? See patch-notes

Arnone M et al (2015) Hazard banding in compliance with the new Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for use in control banding tools. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;73(1):287-95.

Marquart H et al (2008) 'Stoffenmanager', a web-based control banding tool using an exposure process model. Ann. Occup. Hyg.; 52 (6), 429.

patch-notes

7.0.4

September 2017

Multilanguage:

- French and Spanish language added

 

7.1

November 2017

Storage dangerous products:

- adaptation algorithms according to Dutch PGS 15: 2016 Version 1.0 guideline

PGS 15: 2016 versie 1.0

7.5

April 2018

Inhalation risk assessment – control banding and quantitative exposure assessment:

- Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) list plus corresponding Assigned Protection Factors (APF) adapted according to EN-EN 529:2005

- new categories added

- possibility to add own company specific RPE plus corresponding APF

- replaces the list in Stoffenmanager® versions 1.0 and later

EN-EN 529:2005 Respiratory protective devices - Recommendations for selection, use, care and maintenance - Guidance document

3.2 Functionalities

The functionalities are explained in the available manual. You can download the manual – after log in – from the dashboard page. A short overview of the main functionalities can be found below.

Functionality Explanation

Dashboard

Overview of key figures and risks graphically presented. Also to be used in a management review.

Inventory

- generate register of dangerous products

- generate register of CMR-substances

- flagging substances according to several hazardous substances lists

- create predefined processes and workplaces (templates) to be used in the risk assessment

Prioritisation

- inhalation control banding

- dermal control banding

Assessment

- quantitative inhalation exposure assessment

- calculate the job daily average

- risk assessment REACH

Control

- view control measures and / or calculate the effect of control measures

- create action plan

Communication

- generate and disseminate workplace instruction cards ( chemical safety cards) / safe uses

- generate reports and overviews in Word and Excel

- log files and notifications

Additional modules

- SHARE: publish workplace instruction cards and SDS by URL; in this way the latest versions are always available on a pc, tablet or smartphone

- PGS 15 (Dutch only): storage of dangerous products

- ATEX-137 (Dutch only): explosion safety at the workplace

- Nano: inhalation control banding

- PIMEX: instruction movies visualizing the effect of control measures

Languages

Multi-language - English, Dutch, German, Finnish, Swedish, Polish, Spanish, French, Italian and Danish.

3.3 International Scientific Advisory Board and Research platform

The developers of Stoffenmanager® encourage cooperation with universities and scientific institutes. Therefore, Cosanta B.V. established the Stoffenmanager® International Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB) and launched a ‘research platform’ called Stoffenmanager® Research.

3.3.1 The independent International Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB)

An independent International Scientific Advisory Board ( ISAB) is affiliated to Stoffenmanager®. The members of ISAB are prominent research institutes and universities from Europe and beyond. Its focus is to advice on the ongoing development of Stoffenmanager® and undertake or commission Stoffenmanager®-related research. The International Scientific Advisory Board is a guarantee that Stoffenmanager® complies with the EU regulations and is in line with the latest scientific developments. The current ISAB members are:

  • Austrian General Accident Insurance Board (AUVA), Austria
  • National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NFA), Denmark
  • Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Finland
  • Institute of Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Germany
  • University of Insubria, Risk Assessment for Human Health (RAHH), Italy
  • Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), the Netherlands
  • Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland
  • Spanish Association of Industrial Hygiene (AEHI), Spain
  • Dalarna and Lund Universities, Sweden
  • Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene of the National Taiwan University, Taiwan

3.3.2. Stoffenmanager® Research

Stoffenmanager® is a continuous development platform. The underlying algorithms in the models are being evaluated and improved based on state-of-the-art scientific evidence and changes in regulation. Any change in the algorithms is first approved by ISAB. The scientific publications of the studies, based on which changes are implemented, are made available at the official website of Stoffenmanager® (www.stoffenmanager.com) However, in the cases of private funding of research not all details of the algorithms are fully described. Therefore, only at the official Stoffenmanager® website can users find the latest ISAB approved algorithms. Researchers and authorities can have insight into the underlying specifications and algorithms under a Non-Disclosure Agreement with the developers.

In order to stimulate the great deal of ongoing research on existing chemical exposure models and to boost scientific development, the developers from Cosanta have established an open Stoffenmanager® Research platform. Stoffenmanager® Research is an open development website. Researchers all over the world, can have access to this website and in cooperating with the ISAB and Cosanta can develop and test new models or adapt / extend and test the current algorithms. Cosanta gives researchers access to Stoffenmanager® research under a Non-Disclosure Agreement.

3.3.3 Validation studies

Prioritisation: inhalation and dermal control banding

Stoffenmanager® version 7.0 and later classifies the hazard of a product based on the H-statements as described in Arnone et al (2015). The classification in earlier versions was based on COSHH Essentials.

The Stoffenmanager® inhalation model is based on the source–receptor approach of Cherrie and Schneider (1999). The underlying parameters are subsequently scored on a logarithmic scale (Le Feber et al (2003) (version 0, demo version); Marquart et al (2008) (version 3.5)). Later changes in the model are described in 3.1.

The Stoffenmanager® skin model is based on the RISKOFDERM Toolkit (Goede et al (2003). Further details can be found in TNO / Arbo Unie / BECO groep (2006) Functioneel ontwerp Huidmodule (Dutch, not publicly available).

The separate Nano module allows you to qualitatively assess occupational health risks ranging from inhalation exposure to Manufactured Nano Objects. Just like the control banding module, hazard properties and information on exposure are combined to derive a risk score (Duuren-Stuurman et al (2012). Risk management measures can be selected to control exposure. After its release Stoffenmanager® Nano 1.0 has not been further updated to take into account recent scientific literature.

Quantitative inhalation exposure assessment

The quantification of the inhalation model of Stoffenmanager® version 3.0 and 3.5 is described in Tielemans et al (2007) and Tielemans et al (2008). A cross-validation and further refinement of the model (Stoffenmanager® version 4.0) based on almost 1,000 measurements is published in Fransman et al (2009) and Schinkel et al (2010). The authors concluded that the 90-percentile estimation is sufficiently conservative. Several subsequent studies further validated and / or compared later Stoffenmanager® versions with other tools like ART and ECETOC TRA (see under 4. References). In the meantime the validation of the tool is now based on more than 6,000 measurements. It can be concluded from these studies that Stoffenmanager® is the most balanced, robust and sufficiently conservative tool. With the exception that exposure to low volatiles, released as a result of spraying activities outdoors without local exhaust ventilation (aerosol formation- PROC7 and PROC11), was underestimated Tongeren van et al (2017).

3.3.4 Applicability domain

Prioritisation: inhalation and dermal control banding

For the control banding module, the information of the (material) safety data sheet (SDS) of the product is leading. This part of Stoffenmanager® is not useful for substances or products without SDS or for which H-statements are not known or not available (e.g. certain pesticides or pharmaceutical substances). If you would use Stoffenmanager® for such substances, we advise you to determine the H-statements with the help of an expert.

Quantitative inhalation exposure assessment

This route can be used to estimate exposure to powders, low-volatile and volatile substances to a wide range of activities (figure 1). The model can also be used to estimate exposure to abrasive activities using wood (inhalable dust) and stone (inhalable and respirable dust). For other abrasive activities, like using plastic, glass or metal, the model has not been validated. Stoffenmanager® cannot be used to estimate inhalation exposure to fibres, gases and hot work techniques like welding, soldering and diesel exhaust.

Figure 1. Applicability domain for the quantitative inhalation exposure model

Product

Activity

Gas Volatile liquids Non-volatile liquids Powders Fibers Objects
Moving and agitating           n.a.
Gravitational transfer           n.a.
Spreading and immersion           n.a.
Air dispersive techniques     !     n.a.
Hot work techniques           n.a.
Abrasion and impact: Wood and stone n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.  
Abrasion and impact: other activities like plastic, glass or metal n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.  
  • Falls within the applicability domain of Stoffenmanager®
  • Not within the applicability domain of Stoffenmanager®
  • n.a. Not applicable, this situation cannot occur
  • !
    Exposure to low volatile substances, released from spraying activities (aerosol formation - PROC7 and PROC11; ‘Handling of liquids at high pressure resulting in substantial generation of mist or spray/haze’), is possibly underestimated (Tongeren van et al (2017). For such activities it is recommended to use the 95-percentile estimation or to comply with an RCR = 0.5 (instead of RCR= 1).

Additional guidance is given in REACH R.14 Guidance (A.14-1.4.1.1. Applicability domain, updated until Stoffenmanager® 6.4). Here PROCs are listed which can NOT be used in Stoffenmanager®.

4. References

Arnone M, Koppisch D, Smola T, Gabriel S, Verbist K, Visser R (2015) Hazard banding in compliance with the new Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for use in control banding tools. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;73(1):287-95.

Cherrie J, Schneider T. (1999) Validation of a new method for structured subjective assessment of past concentrations. Ann Occup Hyg; 43(4) 235.

Duuren-Stuurman B, Vink SR, Verbist KJM, Heussen HG, Brouwer DH, Kroese DE, Van Niftrik MF, Tielemans E, Fransman W. (2012): Stoffenmanager Nano version 1.0: a web-based tool for risk prioritization of airborne manufactured nano objects. Ann Occup Hyg: 56(5): 525-41.

EN 529: 2005 Respiratory protective devices – Recommendations for selection, use, care and maintenance – Guidance document.

Goede H, Tijssen S, Schipper H, Warren N, Oppl R, Kalberlah F, van Hemmen J. (2003) Classification of dermal exposure modifiers and assignment of values for a risk assessment toolkit. Ann Occup Hyg; 47(8):609-18.

Jankowska A et al (2015) Application of predictive models for estimation of health care workers exposure to sevoflurane.

Jung et al (2016) Further stratification of the Eteam study results. BAuA report F2303.

Koppisch D, Schinkel J, Gabriel S, Fransman W, Tielemans E. (2012). Use of the MEGA exposure database for the validation of the Stoffenmanager model. Ann Occup Hyg: 56(4): 426-39.

Lamb J, S. Hesse, B. G. Miller, L. MacCalman, K. Schroeder, J. Cherrie, M. van Tongeren (2015) Evaluation of Tier 1 Exposure Assessment Models under REACH (eteam) Project.

Lamb J et al (2017) Between-User Reliability of Tier 1 Exposure Assessment Tools Used Under REACH.

Landberg HE et al (2015): Comparison and Evaluation of Multiple Users' Usage of the Exposure and Risk Tool: Stoffenmanager 5.1.

Landberg HE et al (2017) A Study of the Validity of Two Exposure Assessment Tools: Stoffenmanager and the Advanced REACH Tool

Landberg H (2018) The use of exposure models in assessing occupational exposure to chemicals

Landberg HE et al (2018) Evaluation of risk assessment approaches of occupational chemical exposures based on models in comparison with measurements.

Marquart H, Heussen H, Le Feber M, Noy D, Tielemans E, Schinkel J, West J, Van der Schaar, D (2008) 'Stoffenmanager', a web-based control banding tool using an exposure process model. Ann. Occup. Hyg.; 52 (6), 429.

REACH Guidance on Information Requirements and CSA, Chapter R.14 Occupational Exposure Estimation, August 2016.

Riedmann RA et al (2015): Sensitivity Analysis, Dominant Factors, and Robustness of the ECETOC TRA v3, Stoffenmanager 4.5, and ART 1.5 Occupational Exposure Models. Risk Anal. 2015 Feb;35(2):211-25.

Schinkel J, Fransman W, Heussen H, Kromhout H, Marquart H, and Tielemans E. (2010) Cross-validation and refinement of the Stoffenmanager as a first tier exposure assessment tool for REACH. Occup. Environ. Med. 2010 (67), 125.

Spinazzè A et al (2017) Accuracy Evaluation of Three Modelling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment.

Terwoert, J., Verbist, K., & Heussen, H. (2016). An Intervention Study on the Implementation of Control Banding in Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Safety and Health at Work, 7(3), 185-193.

Tielemans E, Noy D, Schinkel J, Heussen H, van der Schaaf D, West J, Fransman W (2008) Stoffenmanager exposure model: development of a quantitative algorithm. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 52(6) 443.

Tielemans E, Schneider T, Goede H, Tischer M, Warren N, Kromhout H, van Tongeren M, van Hemmen J and Cherrie JW (2008) Conceptual Model for Assessment of Inhalation, Exposure: Defining Modifying Factors. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 52(7), 577.

Tongeren van M, Lamb J, Cherrie JW, MacCalman L, Basinas I, Hesse S (2017) Validation of Lower Exposure Tools Used for REACH: Comparison of Tools Estimates With Available Exposure Measurements. Annals of Work Exposures and Health., 1-18.

Ustailieva E, Hollander A, Heussen H (2016) Stoffenmanager® for smart chemicals management and business continuity. OSH WIKI.

Verbist KJM, Marquart H, Heussen HG, Schinkel J, West J, Fransman W, Van Niftrik MF, Tielemans E. (2011): Stoffenmanager: een web-based control banding tool.

Vink SR et al (2010) Use of read across and tiered exposure assessment in risk assessment under REACH - A case study on a phase-in substance.

Zalk DM, Nelson DI (2008) History and Evolution of Control Banding: A Review. J. Occup. Environm. Hyg. 5(5): 330-346.